It follows Moscow's decision to expel US diplomat Ryan Fogle, who was accused of trying to recruit a Russian intelligence officer as a spy.
Mr Fogle, a purported CIA agent, was arrested on Tuesday while wearing a blond wig and was briefly detained. Russia said Mr Fogle was caught while trying to recruit an FSB counter-terrorism agent in the Caucasus.
Russia says it warned the CIA Moscow station chief in 2011 to stop the "provocative" recruitment of spies.
Mr Fogle is said to have been a third secretary at the US embassy in Moscow. He has been declared "persona non grata" for what the Russian foreign ministry called "provocative actions in the spirit of the Cold War".